By Richard Nicholas
March 30, 2017
Last month saw the publication of new patent applications on a novel antiparasitic combination, new uses for an agricultural pesticide and an old antibiotic, as well as new developments in vaccines and other areas.
According to the Animal Pharm Patent Archive, firms with new applications published in February included Advanced Animal Diagnostics, Bayer Animal Health, Ceva Santé Animale, Kyoto Biken, Merial, Pharmaq, Virbac and Zoetis.
In WO2017031120 Merial claims new feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccines based on the viral capsid protein. The protein is expressed by using a baculovirus vector in insect cells which are subsequently inactivated and the debris removed.
Current FCV vaccines contain either killed virus usually administered with an adjuvant which can increase the risk of injection-site sarcoma, or modified live viruses which may select for antigenic variants or have residual virulence.
In WO2017030901 Zoetis claims an attenuated strain of Mycoplasma bovis obtained by chemical mutagenesis. Also claimed are passaged clones of the original attenuated strain.
Current M bovis vaccines are inactivated and require repeat dosing, whereas live attenuated vaccines often have the potential for inducing a more rapid immune response and needing only a single dose.
In WO2017026301 Kyoto Biken claims a vaccine for ruminants that includes an antigen derived from the Staphylococcus aureus toxin, leucocidin M/F. The vaccine may also include a further bacterial antigen from S aureus, such as inactivated whole cells.
The leucocidin M/F toxin is found predominantly in S aureus strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis.
In WO2017021242 and WO2017021266 Bayer claims a method of eliciting immune responses in fish and pigs, respectively, by administering an immunostimulatory plasmid enriched in CpG dinucleotides and a cationic liposome delivery vehicle. This follows on from the recently published application on CpG motif-containing plasmids from the same company.
In both applications the immunomodulator is claimed to improve animal production, survivability and the immune response to a vaccine. In the case of pigs, administration of the immunomodulator is claimed to reduce E coli-induced diarrhea and increase weight gain following PRRSV infection.
In WO2017017091 Virbac claims a novel combination of antiparasitics for topical (spot-on) application in cats and dogs. The three components are fipronil, selamectin and praziquantel, which together tackle both endo- and ectoparasites.
According to the inventors, selamectin exhibits synergy of action in vivo with fipronil by increasing its effects on fleas, in particular by extending its action over time.
In WO2017021498 Pharmaq (part of Zoetis) claims the use of an agricultural insecticide and acaricide in the treatment of fish infested with parasites, specifically sea lice.
Diafenthiuron, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, has previously been described as being toxic to fish but the inventors have found that parasitically effective amounts are without any toxic effects on fish. Furthermore, diafenthiuron is effective against sea lice at multiple stages of the louse life cycle and may be formulated for various routes of administration.
The ongoing aquatic parasite problem was recently demonstrated when it was revealed that in 2016 £300 million ($373 million) was lost in Scottish salmon production to sea lice infestations.
In WO2017025590, Bayer CropScience claims new nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds with insecticidal activity, but the application also discloses activity against veterinary parasites.
In WO2017029271 Bayer claims the use of the cyclic depsipeptide, lysobactin, in the treatment of bovine mastitis.
Lysobactin was discovered in the 1980s and has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. Its mechanism of action is different to other cell wall-active antibiotics such as vancomycin.
The inventors report that directly dosing the udder with lysobactin formulated as a paraffin-based suspension gave a microbiological cure rate as good as, or better than, an existing antibiotic treatment in an experimental infection in dairy cattle.
In WO2017021305 Ceva claims new pheromone compositions for treating or preventing behavioral stress problems in cats and dogs. Significantly, the pheromone content is 1% or less, whereas existing pheromone products for pets contain 2-10% pheromone. The composition is preferably of linoleic acid, valeric acid and ethyl lactate.
The inventors also claim the application of the composition to a dedicated scratching object (such as a scratch post) as a method of discouraging a cat from scratching other objects.
In WO2017019743 Advanced Animal Diagnostics (AAD) claims a new apparatus for the rapid collection of blood from the vein of a cow. The blood is drawn into the apparatus by the combined action of vein pressure and capillary action. The needle is removed and the blood dispensed into a collection device, with the whole operation being carried out in less than a minute.
The device can be used to monitor animals on a feedlot to identify those that will become sick from infection. Recently, AAD demonstrated that use of its new chute-side blood test QScout BLD on feedlot cattle could dramatically reduce antibiotic use by selectively treating animals with abnormal immune status, rather than performing blanket treatment of the entire group.
Reprinted with permission of Animal Pharm News